Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers. Increased SCFA in the gut is associated with improved satiety and weight loss, reduced systemic inflammation by increasing the gut barrier function, and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. The objective of this review is to examine the recent literature in order to determine the types and doses of prebiotics that could be recommended for the management of MetS. A review of the literature was executed using the MEDLINE database and clinical trials from 2013 to 2017 were selected for analysis. In conclusion, a daily supplementation of 10 g of inulin, resistant starches or fructo-oligosaccharide-enriched inulin could have beneficial effects on MetS components in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In healthy subjects or in individuals with the MetS, the results are too heterogeneous and scarce to be able to set any specific recommendations. More clinical studies are needed to better understand the role of prebiotics in the management of MetS components.